Antioxidants are compounds in foods and beverages that can help protect healthy cells from the damaging effects of oxidative stress, a condition that may, over time, have an impact on health. Vitamins C, E and A (as beta carotene), and the mineral selenium, and certain phytonutrients (such as polyphenols) can act as antioxidants.

Concord grape is a hearty American grape with a thick, dark purple skin and seeds that naturally have plant nutrients (phytonutrients) called polyphenols. Not only do polyphenols give Concord grapes their vibrant color, these plant nutrients also act as antioxidants and deliver benefits to promote health. Seedless grapes, like red table grapes, do not appear to contain the same quantity of these polyphenols.

Circulatory system: Composed of the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins, the circulatory system is like a map of thousands of miles of highways that move blood through the body.

Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms that have one or more unpaired electrons. They are a normal part of everyday life, and are produced during activities like exercising or digestion (when our bodies convert food into energy). Free radicals are highly reactive, but our bodies have a natural defense system — so in small numbers, they are not a big problem. However, exposure to certain environmental factors like pollution and UV radiation can also trigger the formation of free radicals. And, when there are too many free radicals for our bodies to protect against, they can set off a damaging chain reaction, which in turn can result in oxidative stress.

Flavonoids are the largest and most studied subgroup of polyphenols and represent the vast majority of the polyphenols found in both the Niagara and Concord grapes. There are thousands of different flavonoids in fruits, vegetables and certain plant-derived beverages (i.e., teas and juices). Many of these flavonoids act as antioxidants and are becoming popular because of emerging science that suggests flavonoids may have health-supporting effects.

Macronutrients are nutrients the body needs in large quantities, like carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Micronutrients are nutrients the body needs in smaller quantities, like vitamins, minerals and trace elements.

Niagara grape is a hearty American grape, and like its cousin the Concord, it is a seeded grape with natural plant nutrients (phytonutrients) called polyphenols. Seedless grapes, like green table grapes, do not appear to contain the same quantity of these potentially health-supporting phytonutrients.

Nitric oxide (NO): Nitric oxide is a molecule produced in the body that helps blood vessels to relax, causing them to expand and keep blood flowing more freely.

Nutrients are compounds needed for human growth and development.

Oxidative stress is a condition that can damage healthy cells. It has been identified as a possible contributor to certain chronic health problems.

Phytonutrients are plant-based nutrients that appear to have health-supporting effects but are not considered essential for human survival. Fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts and teas have these compounds, which are being actively studied for their potential impact on health.

Polyphenols are a subgroup of phytonutrients. They are found in foods like onions, tea, red wine, grapes, and certain nuts. Polyphenols naturally protect plants against pathogens, parasites and predators, and often contribute to the flavor and color of fruits and vegetables. More research is necessary to determine their impact on human health.

Resveratrol is a natural compound (a polyphenol) that can sometimes be found in the skin of grapes — with more found in dark grapes found in cooler climates, with less sunlight and more rainfall. Certain plants produce resveratrol in response to environmental stress like fungal infections. Scientists became interested in studying resveratrol as part of the possible link to the French paradox.